Test Of Agreement Statistics
– if the standard error to test Kappa is separate for each evaluation category, the standard error for the Kappa test is zero for the Kappa set in the k categories. The Kappa hat is calculated as for the method me>2, k-2 shown above. Another option would be to check whether some advisors are so biased that they generally make higher or lower assessments than other advisors. One could also note which images are the subject of most disagreements, and then try to identify the specific image characteristics that are causing the disagreement. Basically and above, a kappa less than 0.2 for poor match, and a kappa above 0.8 indicates a very good adhesion beyond chance. There is little consensus on the most appropriate statistical methods for analyzing advisor compliance (here we will use the terms “miss” and “ratings” to include observers, judges, diagnostic tests, etc.) and their evaluations/results.) For the non-statistician, the number of alternatives and the lack of coherence in the literature are undoubtedly of concern. This site aims to reduce confusion and help researchers choose the appropriate methods for their applications. Nevertheless, important guidelines have appeared in the literature. Perhaps the first Landis and Koch stated that the values < 0 were unseable and 0-0.20 as light, 0.21-0.40 as just, 0.41-0.60 as moderate, 0.61-0.80 as a substantial agreement and 0.81-1 almost perfect. However, these guidelines are not universally accepted; Landis and Koch did not provide evidence, but relied on personal opinion. It was found that these guidelines could be more harmful than useful.  Fleiss`:218 Equally arbitrary guidelines characterize Kappas beyond 0.75 as excellent, 0.40 to 0.75 as just to good and less than 0.40 bad. Cohens coefficient Kappa () is a statistic used to measure reliability between advisors (and also the reliability of inter-raters) for qualitative (categorical) elements.
 It is generally accepted that this is a more robust indicator than a simple percentage of the agreement calculation, since the possibility of a random agreement is taken into account. There are controversies around Cohens Kappa because of the difficulty of interpreting the indications of the agreement. Some researchers have suggested that it is easier, conceptually, to assess differences of opinion between objects.  For more details, see Restrictions. Another way to conduct reliability tests is the use of the intraclass correlation coefficient (CCI).  There are several types, and one is defined as “the percentage of variance of an observation because of the variability between subjects in actual values.”  The ICC area can be between 0.0 and 1.0 (an early definition of CCI could be between 1 and 1). CCI will be high if there are few differences between the partitions that are given to each item by the advisors, z.B. if all advisors give values identical or similar to each of the elements. CCI is an improvement over Pearsons r`displaystyle r` and Spearmans `displaystyle `rho`, as it takes into account differences in evaluations for different segments, as well as the correlation between Denern. It is important to note that in each of the three situations in Table 1, the passport percentages are the same for both examiners, and if the two examiners are compared to a typical 2-×-2 test for mated data (McNemar test), there would be no difference between their performance; On the other hand, the agreement between the observers is very different in these three situations. The basic idea that must be understood here is that “agreement” quantifies the agreement between the two examiners for each of the “couples” of the scores, not the similarity of the total pass percentage between the examiners.
Statistically highly qualified tests suggest that we should reject the zero hypothesis, that the ratings are independent (i.e. kappa – 0) and accept the alternative that an agreement is better than one might expect.