Trade Agreements During Ww2
 A description of THE multilateral trade cycles of the GATT can be found in the World Trade Organization “The Years of GATT: From Havana to Marrakech,” www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/tif_e/fact4_e.htm. Shortly after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the United States launched an initiative to promote peace in the Middle East by announcing its intention to negotiate a free trade agreement in the Middle East that would extend from the Persian Gulf to the Atlantic Ocean. There has been a flood of negotiations and agreements, including agreements with Morocco (2005), Bahrain (2006) and Oman (2009). The hope was that a free trade agreement that included both Arab nations and Israel would promote peace in the Middle East and discourage terrorism by stimulating long-term economic growth. Following the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the EU insisted on trade agreements with some Central and Eastern European countries and established some bilateral trade agreements with Middle Eastern countries in the mid-1990s. The United States also continued its own trade negotiations and in 1985 concluded an agreement with Israel and the trilateral North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) with Mexico and Canada in the early 1990s. Many other important regional agreements have also been adopted in South America, Africa and Asia. In 1878, Italy introduced a moderate series of tariffs, followed in 1887 by stricter tariffs. In 1879 Germany, with its “iron and rye” tariff, would return to a more protectionist policy, and France would follow with its 1892 Méline tariff.
Only Britain, of all the great powers of Western Europe, has maintained its respect for the free trade policy. The derogation from the customs union was intended in part to take account of the creation of the European Economic Community (EC) in 1958. The EC, originally made up of six European countries, is now known as the European Union (EU) and has 27 European countries. The EU has gone beyond simply removing barriers to trade between Member States and creating a customs union. It has moved towards greater economic integration by becoming a common market – a regulation that removes barriers to mobility from factors of production such as capital and labour between participating countries. As a common market, the EU also coordinates and harmonizes each country`s tax, industrial and agricultural policies. In addition, many EU Member States have created a single currency area by replacing their national currencies with the euro. Currently, the United States has concluded negotiations with 11 other countries (Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore and Vietnam) for a regional trade agreement called the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP). The agreement is now awaiting approval from the U.S. Congress before it enters into force, and there is strong opposition to the agreement in Congress.