What Is A Voluntary Agreements

Perhaps the most important influences on pathways and articulation in higher education are the vast economic, technological and social changes. Increased national prosperity allows governments to expand higher education and set up facilities in smaller population centers, thus greatly expanding access. The increase in personal and family wealth gives people and their children the resources and, above all, the pursuit of higher education. Improvements and reduced transportation and communication costs make it much more convenient for students to study at institutions far from home. These are some of the reasons for the great expansion of transnational higher education over the past two decades, which has produced the partnership agreements mentioned above, as well as the many means and articulation agreements being developed between institutions in different countries. Distance or resource training techniques and, more recently, the great expansion of information and communication technologies have supported a variety of new ways and arrangements of articulation. This suggests that future developments in pathways and articulation in higher education may be influenced as much by these general economic, technological and social developments as by measures specifically targeting pathways and articulation in higher education. In 23 countries, the legal framework provided for a revision of prices based on the EPD. In Denmark and Ireland, revisions have also taken place at regular intervals, but they are based on a voluntary agreement between public payers and the pharmaceutical industry and not on legislation. Countries with revision or monitoring legislation had fixed dates or fixed intervals ranging from 1 month to 5 years. Of the 26 countries that carried out price monitoring and revisions, 18 conducted this exercise regularly, the others on specific occasions.

The duration of the intervals ranged from 3 months to even 5 years. In some cases, regular price monitoring or revisions are associated with certain medicines: in Norway, the prices of 250 substances, which accounted for about three-quarters of the reimbursement market in terms of value, were revised annually, and in Spain and Ireland, the prices of non-patented medicines were regularly updated once a year. Five countries (Belgium, Croatia, Denmark, Germany and Hungary) reported that they did not have regular intervals for price revisions. .

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